England referendum

england referendum

Nov. Die Briten wollen raus aus der EU. Das ist rasch gesagt - aber nur schwer umgesetzt. Wie ist der Stand? Und was passiert als Nächstes?. Nov. Das britische Kabinett hat den Vertragsentwurf unter Protest gebilligt, Theresa May bleibt und will kämpfen. Doch was, wenn ihr Brexit-Plan. Dez. Ihre Meinung zu: Zweites Brexit-Referendum: May warnt vor Wovor hat Frau May Angst? Falls England in der EU verbleibt, würde das vor. Zu diesem Zweck wurden entsprechende Verträge aufgelegt. Das arbeitende, demokratische und im Kern liberale Volk der EU und des UK muss endlich wieder die Kraft aufbringen, sich zu lottoland.gratistip und die Führung zu übernehmen. Premiere für länderübergreifendes E-Rezept Brexit-Blog: Dem haben Johnson und Co. Mir persönlich ist es richtig market kauf ob die Briten ein 2. Ihr Kommentar zum Thema. Critics urge renegotiation as postol say vote 'going ahead'.

In line with the outcome of the vote, the United Kingdom remained a member of the European Communities which would later become the European Union.

The alternative vote referendum, as part of the Conservative — Liberal Democrat Coalition Agreement drawn up after the general election , was a nationwide vote held on Thursday 5 May the same date as local elections in many areas to choose the method of electing MPs at subsequent general elections.

The referendum concerned whether to replace the present " first-past-the-post " system with the " alternative vote " AV method. The voters were asked to vote yes or no on the question "At present, the UK uses the "first past the post" system to elect MPs to the House of Commons.

Should the "alternative vote" system be used instead? It was the first nationwide referendum to be held for some thirty six years and was legislated for under the provisions of the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act and the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act and is to date the first and only UK-wide referendum to be held on a domestic issue.

On Thursday 23 June the United Kingdom voted for the second time in 41 years on its membership to what is now known as the European Union EU with the overseas territory Gibraltar also voting on the issue for the very first time.

All of the major political parties were in favour of remaining an EU member, except for a split within the Conservative Party.

The cabinet was split between pro-EU and anti-EU ministers, and Cameron suspended the constitutional convention of Cabinet collective responsibility , allowing ministers to publicly campaign on either side.

Seven of the 23 members of the Cabinet opposed continued EU membership. The referendum was legislated for under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act , which legally required HM Government to hold the referendum no later than 31 December and also the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act Of the voting areas, returned majority votes in favour of "Leave" whereas returned majority votes in favour of "Remain" which included every Scottish council area and all but five of the London boroughs.

The vote revealed divisions among the constituent nations of the United Kingdom, with England and Wales voting to leave, but Scotland and Northern Ireland voting to remain.

It was the first time a UK-wide referendum result had gone against the preferred choice of HM Government who had officially recommended a "Remain" vote and it led to a period of political turmoil.

As a direct consequence of losing the referendum, David Cameron announced his resignation as Prime Minister on the morning after the vote.

He left office three weeks later on 13 July, and was succeeded by Theresa May. Since there have been eleven other referendums held by the Government of the United Kingdom within the constituent countries related to the issues of sovereignty, devolution and independence in Northern Ireland , Scotland and Wales and in parts of England in the North East and London.

Referendums have been held in local areas in England, Wales and Scotland since These have covered issues such as local government administration, transport, prohibition , and other local questions.

The areas covered have generally corresponded to local authority areas, civil parishes, or wards , with all local government electors of the relevant area being eligible to vote.

Principal authorities in Great Britain have the ability to hold an advisory referendum on any issue relating to its services, financial provisions, and other matters that are relevant to the area.

A local advisory referendum is not required to follow the legislation governing the conduct of other referendums and elections in the UK.

The local authority can choose how to conduct a local referendum, and may choose to hold the vote solely by post , instead of using polling stations.

These plans included a congestion charge which would have required motorists to pay a fee to enter the city at certain times of the day.

The result was announced on 22 February and the people of Edinburgh had rejected the proposals. Strathclyde Regional Council held a referendum in on the plans of the Conservative UK government to privatise water services within Scotland.

The government planned to sell the three recently established water authorities in Scotland, created under the Local Government etc.

Scotland Act as a precursor for privatisation, which would bring Scotland in line with the privatisation in England and Wales.

Strathclyde council, which previously held responsibility for water services, planned the referendum in response to overwhelming public opinion against the move.

Although the referendum had no legal effect, the plan to privatise Scottish water services was eventually dropped. Legislation in England and Wales obliges local authorities to hold and abide by the results of referendums in certain circumstances.

In England, raising Council Tax above a level proscribed by the Local Government Secretary requires approval in a referendum. Only one council tax referendum has been held, on behalf of the Bedfordshire Police and Crime Commissioner , and the rise was rejected.

The Localism Act allows parish councils or local community groups to create neighbourhood development plans. The plans are intended to guide planning decisions within the neighbourhood area, by outlining the amount and type of development that should occur in the area, what land may be built upon and how existing buildings may be reused.

For a plan to come into force, it must be approved by the electorate in the local area in a referendum. Neighbourhood planning referendums have a high success rate, with all being approved as of December A local authority in England and Wales can hold a referendum on changing its executive arrangements between a directly elected mayor, a leader and cabinet, and in England only, a committee system.

If successful, the council must change its governance system, and hold an election for the mayor if necessary. The process differs between England and Wales.

In England, a referendum can be held on moving between any of the three systems, and following the vote another referendum may not be held for 10 years.

A council is not required to hold a referendum to change its executive arrangements, [note 2] but a change that has occurred as a result of a referendum can only be changed following another referendum.

In Wales, a council must hold a referendum to change between a mayor and leader and cabinet, with the minimum period between votes set at five years.

Fifty-three referendums have taken place in local authorities to establish whether there is support for directly elected mayors.

Sixteen were successful and a mayoralty was established; in thirty-seven local authorities an elected mayor was rejected by voters. An additional six referendums have been held on removing the post of elected mayor, with three mayoralties being retained, and three disestablished.

Two referendums have been held in response to a petition on moving to a committee system, in the Borough of Fylde and in West Dorset.

Both referendums were successful. The temperance movement led to two countries of the UK gaining the right to hold referendums on the sale of alcohol in the local area, upon the request of a number of local electors.

The Temperance Scotland Act provided that polls could be held in small local areas in Scotland to determine whether to instate a level of prohibition on the purchase of alcoholic beverages ; the provisions were later incorporated into the Licensing Scotland Act Between and 1, such polls were held, with the vast majority 1, held before The Act was extended to Monmouthshire in Under the terms of the Licensing Act , on the application of local electors, a referendum could be held in each local government area at seven-year intervals on whether that district should be "wet" or "dry" on the Sabbath.

Most districts in the border area and the southern industrial area went "wet" in or , with most others following suit in The whole of Wales was "wet" from , and the facility for further referendums was removed by the Sunday Licensing Act A parish poll is a referendum held in a civic parish under the Local Government Act The poll was initiated by a supporter of the United Kingdom Independence Party , a political party noted for its Euroscepticism.

The poll was criticised by the chairman of the parish council as "little more than a publicity stunt. After Brexit, an independent England will emerge by default.

And this is of course a perfectly legitimate aspiration. Nationalism, whether we like it or not, is almost universal and the English have as much right to it as anyone else.

England seems to be muddling its way towards a very peculiar event: The first thing about the idea of England as a nation state that governs itself and only itself is that it is radically new.

But when did England really stand alone? The answer, roughly speaking, is for of the past 1, years. England has been a political entity for only two relatively short periods.

The first was between the early 10th century, when the first English national kingdom was created by Athelstan, and when it was conquered by Cnut the Dane.

The second was between , when English kings effectively gave up their attempts to rule France, and , when James VI and I united the thrones of England and Scotland.

Otherwise — and this includes all of the past years — England has always been part of at least one larger entity: The English are much less used to being left to their own devices than they think they are.

English nationalists can quite reasonably point out that many emerging nation states have even less experience of being a standalone, self-governing entity — my own country, Ireland, being an obvious example.

In England, there is no process. A decisive step is about to be taken without acknowledging the path ahead. Hardly anyone is even talking about England — all the Brexit arguments are framed in terms of Britain or the UK, as if these historically constructed and contingent entities will simply carry on regardless in the new dispensation.

The Brexiters imagine an earthquake that will, curiously, leave the domestic landscape unaltered. English nationalism is thus a very strange phenomenon — a passion that is driving a nation towards historic change but one that seems unwilling even to speak its own name.

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Those arguing to remain in the EU, claimed that millions of jobs would be lost. Brexit threat to spielers dinners comes as stockpiling intensifies. Retrieved 24 December It is a standalone England. The others were fully or partially approved. Cameron pushes it at his peril N. From the German viewpoint, the existence of treffpunkt 18 abmelden liberal bloc allows Germany online spiele deutsch kostenlos play off free-market Britain against dirigiste Em ball 2019 finale, and that if Britain were new casino restaurant sarnia leave, the liberal bloc would be severely weakened, thereby allowing the French to take the EU into a much more dirigiste direction that would be unattractive from the standpoint of Berlin. What does Russia gain from Brexit? Redirected from United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, In or Out In February Britain and the EU struck a deal. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Scottish independence referendum, Retrieved 8 December Wild jack casino 5 free Associated Press called the sudden worldwide stock market decline a stock market crash.

England Referendum Video

UK Labour Party vote to back second Brexit referendum as option

In the event, there was a substantial majority against any change. Prior to being officially announced, it was widely speculated that a June date for the referendum was a serious possibility.

The First Ministers of Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales co-signed a letter to Cameron asking him not to hold the referendum in June, as devolved elections were scheduled to take place the previous month.

These elections had been postponed for a year to avoid a clash with the general election, after Westminster had implemented the Fixed-term Parliament Act.

Cameron refused this request, saying people were able to make up their own minds in multiple elections spaced a short time from each other.

In February , Cameron announced that the UK Government would formally recommend to the British people that the UK should remain a member of a reformed European Union and that the referendum would be held on 23 June, marking the official launch of the campaign.

He also announced that Parliament would enact secondary legislation on 22 February relating to the European Union Referendum Act With the official launch, ministers of the UK Government were then free to campaign on either side of the argument in a rare exception to Cabinet collective responsibility.

The right to vote in the referendum in the United Kingdom is defined by the legislation as limited to residents of the United Kingdom who were either also Commonwealth citizens under the British Nationality Act which include British citizens and other British nationals , or those who were also citizens of the Republic of Ireland , or both.

Members of the House of Lords, who could not vote in general elections, were able to vote in the referendum. The electorate of 46,, represented Residents of the United Kingdom who were citizens of other EU countries were not allowed to vote unless they were citizens or were also citizens of the Republic of Ireland, of Malta , or of the Republic of Cyprus.

The Representation of the People Acts c. Each polling station was specified to have no more than 2, registered voters. The minimum age for voters in the referendum was set to 18 years, in line with the Representation of the People Act, as amended.

A House of Lords amendment proposing to lower the minimum age to 16 years was rejected. The deadline to register to vote was initially midnight on 7 June ; however, this was extended by 48 hours owing to technical problems with the official registration website on 7 June, caused by unusually high web traffic.

Nottingham City Council emailed a Vote Leave supporter to say that the council was unable to check whether the nationality that people stated on their voting registration form was true, and hence that they simply had to assume that the information that was submitted was, indeed, correct.

Kingston upon Thames Council and the Electoral Commission stated that Jakub Pawlowski, a Polish voter in Kingston upon Thames declared himself as being British on his registration form, and hence, received a referendum polling card in the post, although he is not a UK citizen and did not have the right to receive such a polling card.

The voter stated that he specified that he was a Polish citizen when registering on the electoral roll, [58] but still had received the card in the post.

Xpress was initially unable to confirm the exact number of those affected. The matter was resolved by the issuance of a software patch which rendered the wrongly recorded electors ineligible to vote on 23 June.

Residents of the Crown Dependencies which are not part of the United Kingdom , namely the Isle of Man and the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey , even if they were British citizens, were excluded from the referendum unless they were also previous residents of the United Kingdom that is: England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

Some residents of the Isle of Man protested that they, as full British citizens under the British Nationality Act and living within the British Islands , should also have been given the opportunity to vote in the referendum, as the Isle and the Bailiwicks, although not included as if they were part of the United Kingdom for the purpose of European Union and European Economic Area EEA membership as is the case with Gibraltar , would also have been significantly affected by the outcome and impact of the referendum.

Research by the Electoral Commission confirmed that its recommended question "was clear and straightforward for voters, and was the most neutral wording from the range of options As of October [update] , there was a cross-party, formal group campaigning for Britain to remain a member of the EU, called Britain Stronger in Europe , while there were two groups promoting British withdrawal from the EU which sought to be the official Leave campaign: EU also had an umbrella group offshoot, [64] the cross-party Grassroots Out.

Nevertheless, Cameron announced that Conservative Ministers and MPs were free to campaign in favour of remaining in the EU or leaving it, according to their conscience.

This decision came after mounting pressure for a free vote for ministers. HM Government distributed a leaflet to every household in England in the week commencing on 11 April, and in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland on 5 May after devolved elections.

In the week beginning on 16 May, the Electoral Commission sent a voting guide regarding the referendum to every household within the UK and Gibraltar to raise awareness of the upcoming referendum.

The eight-page guide contained details on how to vote, as well as a sample of the actual ballot paper, and a whole page each was given to the campaign groups Britain Stronger in Europe and Vote Leave to present their case.

Those who favoured withdrawal from the European Union — commonly referred to as Brexit — argued that the EU has a democratic deficit and that being a member undermined national sovereignty , while those who favoured membership argued that in a world with many supranational organisations any loss of sovereignty was compensated by the benefits of EU membership.

Various UK multinationals have stated that they would not like the UK to leave the EU because of the uncertainty it would cause, such as Shell , [] BT [] and Vodafone , [] with some assessing the pros and cons of Britain exiting.

Uncertainty over the referendum result, together with several other factors—US interest rates rising, low commodity prices, low Eurozone growth and concerns over emerging markets such as China—contributed to a high level of stock market volatility in January and February It recovered to The Associated Press called the sudden worldwide stock market decline a stock market crash.

Marine Le Pen , the leader of the French Front national , described the possibility of a Brexit as "like the fall of the Berlin Wall " and commented that "Brexit would be marvellous — extraordinary — for all European peoples who long for freedom".

Again, we could be saved by the British. Christine Lagarde , the managing director of the International Monetary Fund , warned in February that the uncertainty over the outcome of the referendum would be bad "in and of itself" for the British economy.

In October , United States Trade Representative Michael Froman declared that the United States was not keen on pursuing a separate free-trade agreement FTA with Britain if it were to leave the EU, thus, according to The Guardian , undermining a key economic argument of proponents of those who say Britain would prosper on its own and be able to secure bilateral FTAs with trading partners.

We want to make sure that the United Kingdom continues to have that influence. Prior to the vote, Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump anticipated that Britain would leave based on its concerns over migration, [] while Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton hoped that Britain would remain in the EU to strengthen transatlantic co-operation.

In October , Chinese President Xi Jinping declared his support for Britain remaining in the EU, saying "China hopes to see a prosperous Europe and a united EU, and hopes Britain, as an important member of the EU, can play an even more positive and constructive role in promoting the deepening development of China-EU ties".

In February , the finance ministers from the G20 major economies warned that leaving the EU would lead to "a shock" in the global economy. In May , the Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull said that Australia would prefer the UK to remain in the EU, but that it was a matter for the British people, and "whatever judgment they make, the relations between Britain and Australia will be very, very close".

Indonesian president Joko Widodo stated during a European trip that he was not in favour of Brexit. Sri Lankan Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe issued a statement of reasons why he was "very concerned" at the possibility of Brexit.

Russian President Vladimir Putin said: We are not involved in this process in any way. In December , the Bank of England published a report about the impact of immigration on wages.

From the German viewpoint, the existence of the liberal bloc allows Germany to play off free-market Britain against dirigiste France, and that if Britain were to leave, the liberal bloc would be severely weakened, thereby allowing the French to take the EU into a much more dirigiste direction that would be unattractive from the standpoint of Berlin.

World Pensions Forum director M. Nicolas Firzi has argued that the Brexit debate should be viewed within the broader context of economic analysis of EU law and regulation in relation to English common law , arguing: Slowly but surely, these new laws dictated by EU commissars are conquering English common law, imposing upon UK businesses and citizens an ever-growing collection of fastidious regulations in every field".

The head of the IFS, Paul Johnson said that the UK "could perfectly reasonably decide that we are willing to pay a bit of a price for leaving the EU and regaining some sovereignty and control over immigration and so on.

That there would be some price though, I think is now almost beyond doubt. During a Treasury Committee shortly following the vote, economic experts generally agreed that the leave vote would be detrimental to the UK economy.

Michael Dougan , Professor of European law and Jean Monnet Chair in EU Law at the University of Liverpool and a constitutional lawyer, described the Leave campaign as "one of the most dishonest political campaigns this country [the UK] has ever seen", for using arguments based on constitutional law that he said were readily demonstrable as false.

Guidelines by the Charity Commission for England and Wales that forbid political activity for registered charities have kept them silent on the EU poll.

In May , more than historians wrote in a joint letter to The Guardian that Britain could play a bigger role in the world as part of the EU.

A Blueprint for Britain: Analysis of polling suggested that young voters tended to support remaining in the EU, whereas those older tend to support leaving, but there was no gender split in attitudes.

The Leave campaign argued that a reduction in red tape associated with EU regulations would create more jobs and that small to medium-sized companies who trade domestically would be the biggest beneficiaries.

Those arguing to remain in the EU, claimed that millions of jobs would be lost. Scenarios of the economic outlook for the country if it left the EU were generally negative.

The United Kingdom also paid more into the EU budget than it received. Citizens of EU countries, including the United Kingdom, have the right to travel, live and work within other EU countries, as free movement is one of the four founding principles of the EU.

After the announcement had been made as to the outcome of the referendum, Rowena Mason, political correspondent for The Guardian offered the following assessment: The EU had offered David Cameron a so-called "emergency brake" which would have allowed the UK to withhold social benefits to new immigrants for the first four years after they arrived; this brake could have been applied for a period of seven years.

The UK cannot possibly continue in its present form if England votes to leave and everyone else votes to stay".

The scheduled debates and question sessions included a number of question and answer sessions with various campaigners. The voting areas were grouped into twelve regional counts and there was separate declarations for each of the regional counts.

In England, as happened in the AV referendum , the districts were used as the local voting areas and the returns of these then fed into nine English regional counts.

In Scotland the local voting areas were the 32 local councils which then fed their results into the Scottish national count, and in Wales the 22 local councils were their local voting areas before the results were then fed into the Welsh national count.

Northern Ireland, as was the case in the AV referendum, was a single voting and national count area although local totals by Westminster parliamentary constituency areas were announced.

Gibraltar was a single voting area, but as Gibraltar was to be treated and included as if it were a part of South West England, its results was included together with the South West England regional count.

The following table shows the breakdown of the voting areas and regional counts that were used for the referendum. On 16 June , one pro-EU Labour MP, Jo Cox , was shot and killed in Birstall, West Yorkshire the week before the referendum by a man calling himself "death to traitors, freedom for Britain", and a man who intervened was injured.

On polling day itself two polling stations in Kingston upon Thames were flooded by rain and had to be relocated.

Although this was widely dismissed as a conspiracy theory, some Leave campaigners advocated that voters should instead use pens to mark their ballot papers.

On polling day in Winchester an emergency call was made to police about "threatening behaviour" outside the polling station. After questioning a woman who had been offering to lend her pen to voters, the police decided that no offence was being committed.

The final result was announced on Friday 24 June at The vote of the electorate was to "Leave the European Union" by a majority of 1,, votes 3.

Voting figures from local referendum counts and ward-level data using local demographic information collected in the census suggested that Leave votes were strongly correlated with lower education and higher age.

EU referendum vote by age and education, based on a YouGov survey. The referendum was criticised for not granting people younger than 18 years of age a vote.

Unlike in the Scottish independence referendum , the vote was not extended to and year-old citizens. Critics argued that these people would live with the consequences of the referendum for longer than those who were able to vote.

Some supporters for the inclusion of these young citizens considered this exclusion a violation of democratic principles and a major shortcoming of the referendum.

The foreign ministry of Ireland stated on 24 June that the number of applications from the UK for Irish passports had increased significantly.

There were more than a hundred reports of racist abuse and hate crime in the immediate aftermath of the referendum, with many citing the plan to leave the European Union.

No more Polish vermin". On 26 June, the London office of the Polish Social and Cultural Association was vandalised with graffiti that was initially characterised as a racist hate crime.

The killing of a Polish national Arkadiusz Jozwik in Harlow, Essex in August [] was widely, but falsely, [] speculated to be linked to the Leave result.

The petition had actually been initiated by someone favouring an exit from the EU, one William Oliver Healey of the English Democrats on 24 May , when the Remain faction had been leading in the polls, and had received 22 signatures prior to the referendum result being declared.

Healey also claimed that the petition had been "hijacked by the remain campaign". There must be no attempts to remain inside the EU Its response said that the referendum vote "must be respected" and that the government "must now prepare for the process to exit the EU".

On 24 June, the Conservative Party leader and Prime Minister David Cameron announced that he would resign by October because the Leave campaign had been successful in the referendum.

The leadership election was scheduled for 9 September. The new leader would be in place before the autumn conference set to begin on 2 October.

The Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn faced growing criticism from his party, which had supported remaining within the EU, for poor campaigning.

This led to a string of Labour MPs quickly resigning their roles in the party. The vote did not require the party to call a leadership election [] but after Angela Eagle and Owen Smith launched leadership challenges to Corbyn, the Labour Party UK leadership election, was triggered.

Corbyn won the contest, with a larger share of the vote than in On 4 July Nigel Farage stood down as the leader of UKIP, stating that his "political ambition has been achieved" following the result of the referendum.

Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said on 24 June that it was "clear that the people of Scotland see their future as part of the European Union" and that Scotland had "spoken decisively" with a "strong, unequivocal" vote to remain in the European Union.

In reaction to the lack of a unified pro-EU voice following the referendum, the Liberal Democrats and others discussed the launch of a new centre-left political movement.

On the morning of 24 June, the pound sterling fell to its lowest level against the US dollar since The referendum result also had an immediate impact on some other countries.

On 28 June , former governor of Bank of England Mervyn King said that current governor Mark Carney would help to guide Britain through the next few months, adding that the BOE would undoubtedly lower the temperature of the post-referendum uncertainty, and that British citizens should keep calm, wait and see.

In August the Electoral Reform Society published a highly critical report on the referendum and called for a review of how future events are run.

Looking ahead, the society called for an official organisation to highlight misleading claims and for Office of Communications Ofcom to define the role that broadcasters were expected to play.

The BBC called the referendum result for Leave with its projected forecast at David Dimbleby announced it with the words:. The remark about was incorrect: On 9 May , Leave.

It was specified that among the organisations to be investigated was Cambridge Analytica and its relationship with the Leave.

In the run-up to the Brexit referendum, Prime Minister David Cameron suggested that Russia "might be happy" with a positive Brexit vote, while the Remain campaign accused the Kremlin of secretly backing a "Leave" vote in the referendum.

The article identified 13, Twitter accounts that posted a total of about 65, messages in the last four weeks of the Brexit referendum campaign, the vast majority campaigning for a "Leave" vote; they were deleted shortly after the referendum.

In November , the Electoral Commission told The Times that it had launched an inquiry to "examine the growing role of social media in election campaigns amid concerns from the intelligence and security agencies that Russia is trying to destabilise the democratic process in Britain".

After denying it for over a year, Facebook admitted in November that it was targeted by Russian trolls in the run-up to the Brexit referendum.

EU funder Arron Banks had met Russian officials "multiple times" from to and had discussed "a multibillion dollar opportunity to buy Russian goldmines".

In February , the Electoral Commission announced that it was investigating the spending of Stronger In and Vote Leave, along with smaller parties, as they had not submitted all the necessary invoices, receipts, or details to back up their accounts.

In November , the Electoral Commission said that it was investigating allegations that Arron Banks , an insurance businessman and the largest single financial supporter of Brexit, violated campaign spending laws.

In December , the Electoral Commission announced several fines related to breaches of campaign finance rules during the referendum campaign.

In May , the Electoral Commission fined Leave. On 14th September , following a High Court of Justice case, the court found that Vote Leave had received incorrect advice from the UK Electoral Commission , but confirmed that the overspending had been illegal.

Vote Leave subsequently said they would not have paid it without the advice. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Members — elected by parliament Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Women.

Article 50 and negotiations. European Union Referendum Act Campaigning in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, For the positions of backbench MPs and other politicians, see Endorsements in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Opinion polling for the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

Issues in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Results of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, International reactions to the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

Aftermath of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Conservative Party UK leadership election, Labour Party UK leadership election, Proposed second Scottish independence referendum.

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Retrieved 9 January Retrieved 14 May Retrieved 2 February This content is released under the Open Parliament Licence v3. Cameron sets June date for UK vote".

Retrieved 24 December Retrieved 28 June Retrieved 30 January Retrieved 21 June UK goes to the polls". Retrieved 23 June Thousands wrongly sent polling cards".

Retrieved 15 February United Kingdom Electoral Commission. Retrieved 5 September Cameron accepts advice to change wording of question".

Retrieved 13 September Retrieved 13 April MPs will be allowed free vote on EU referendum — video" Video.

David Cameron forced to let ministers campaign for Brexit after fears of a Cabinet resignation". Retrieved 17 June Government of the United Kingdom.

Retrieved 11 April Retrieved 11 March Retrieved 27 May Retrieved 18 June Pro-Europeans are the real reformers now". Archived from the original on 17 June Greens to Make Progressive Case for Membership".

Retrieved 8 December Retrieved 21 February Alliance Party of Northern Ireland. Green Party in Northern Ireland: Since the cabinet was split between strongly pro-European and strongly anti-European ministers, Harold Wilson suspended the constitutional convention of Cabinet collective responsibility and allowed ministers to publicly campaign on either side.

Seven of the twenty-three members of the cabinet opposed EC membership and the party was formally neutral on the issue. The two campaign groups in the referendum were "Britain in Europe" advocating a yes vote and "National Referendum Campaign" advocating a no vote.

The voters were asked to vote "Yes" or "No" on the question: In line with the outcome of the vote, the United Kingdom remained a member of the European Communities which would later become the European Union.

The alternative vote referendum, as part of the Conservative — Liberal Democrat Coalition Agreement drawn up after the general election , was a nationwide vote held on Thursday 5 May the same date as local elections in many areas to choose the method of electing MPs at subsequent general elections.

The referendum concerned whether to replace the present " first-past-the-post " system with the " alternative vote " AV method.

The voters were asked to vote yes or no on the question "At present, the UK uses the "first past the post" system to elect MPs to the House of Commons.

Should the "alternative vote" system be used instead? It was the first nationwide referendum to be held for some thirty six years and was legislated for under the provisions of the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act and the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act and is to date the first and only UK-wide referendum to be held on a domestic issue.

On Thursday 23 June the United Kingdom voted for the second time in 41 years on its membership to what is now known as the European Union EU with the overseas territory Gibraltar also voting on the issue for the very first time.

All of the major political parties were in favour of remaining an EU member, except for a split within the Conservative Party.

The cabinet was split between pro-EU and anti-EU ministers, and Cameron suspended the constitutional convention of Cabinet collective responsibility , allowing ministers to publicly campaign on either side.

Seven of the 23 members of the Cabinet opposed continued EU membership. The referendum was legislated for under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act , which legally required HM Government to hold the referendum no later than 31 December and also the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act Of the voting areas, returned majority votes in favour of "Leave" whereas returned majority votes in favour of "Remain" which included every Scottish council area and all but five of the London boroughs.

The vote revealed divisions among the constituent nations of the United Kingdom, with England and Wales voting to leave, but Scotland and Northern Ireland voting to remain.

It was the first time a UK-wide referendum result had gone against the preferred choice of HM Government who had officially recommended a "Remain" vote and it led to a period of political turmoil.

As a direct consequence of losing the referendum, David Cameron announced his resignation as Prime Minister on the morning after the vote.

He left office three weeks later on 13 July, and was succeeded by Theresa May. Since there have been eleven other referendums held by the Government of the United Kingdom within the constituent countries related to the issues of sovereignty, devolution and independence in Northern Ireland , Scotland and Wales and in parts of England in the North East and London.

Referendums have been held in local areas in England, Wales and Scotland since These have covered issues such as local government administration, transport, prohibition , and other local questions.

The areas covered have generally corresponded to local authority areas, civil parishes, or wards , with all local government electors of the relevant area being eligible to vote.

Principal authorities in Great Britain have the ability to hold an advisory referendum on any issue relating to its services, financial provisions, and other matters that are relevant to the area.

A local advisory referendum is not required to follow the legislation governing the conduct of other referendums and elections in the UK.

The local authority can choose how to conduct a local referendum, and may choose to hold the vote solely by post , instead of using polling stations.

These plans included a congestion charge which would have required motorists to pay a fee to enter the city at certain times of the day. The result was announced on 22 February and the people of Edinburgh had rejected the proposals.

Strathclyde Regional Council held a referendum in on the plans of the Conservative UK government to privatise water services within Scotland.

The government planned to sell the three recently established water authorities in Scotland, created under the Local Government etc.

Scotland Act as a precursor for privatisation, which would bring Scotland in line with the privatisation in England and Wales. Strathclyde council, which previously held responsibility for water services, planned the referendum in response to overwhelming public opinion against the move.

Although the referendum had no legal effect, the plan to privatise Scottish water services was eventually dropped. Legislation in England and Wales obliges local authorities to hold and abide by the results of referendums in certain circumstances.

In England, raising Council Tax above a level proscribed by the Local Government Secretary requires approval in a referendum. Only one council tax referendum has been held, on behalf of the Bedfordshire Police and Crime Commissioner , and the rise was rejected.

The Localism Act allows parish councils or local community groups to create neighbourhood development plans.

The plans are intended to guide planning decisions within the neighbourhood area, by outlining the amount and type of development that should occur in the area, what land may be built upon and how existing buildings may be reused.

For a plan to come into force, it must be approved by the electorate in the local area in a referendum. Neighbourhood planning referendums have a high success rate, with all being approved as of December A local authority in England and Wales can hold a referendum on changing its executive arrangements between a directly elected mayor, a leader and cabinet, and in England only, a committee system.

If successful, the council must change its governance system, and hold an election for the mayor if necessary. The process differs between England and Wales.

In England, a referendum can be held on moving between any of the three systems, and following the vote another referendum may not be held for 10 years.

A council is not required to hold a referendum to change its executive arrangements, [note 2] but a change that has occurred as a result of a referendum can only be changed following another referendum.

In Wales, a council must hold a referendum to change between a mayor and leader and cabinet, with the minimum period between votes set at five years.

Fifty-three referendums have taken place in local authorities to establish whether there is support for directly elected mayors.

Sixteen were successful and a mayoralty was established; in thirty-seven local authorities an elected mayor was rejected by voters.

An additional six referendums have been held on removing the post of elected mayor, with three mayoralties being retained, and three disestablished.

Two referendums have been held in response to a petition on moving to a committee system, in the Borough of Fylde and in West Dorset.

Both referendums were successful. The temperance movement led to two countries of the UK gaining the right to hold referendums on the sale of alcohol in the local area, upon the request of a number of local electors.

The Temperance Scotland Act provided that polls could be held in small local areas in Scotland to determine whether to instate a level of prohibition on the purchase of alcoholic beverages ; the provisions were later incorporated into the Licensing Scotland Act Between and 1, such polls were held, with the vast majority 1, held before The Act was extended to Monmouthshire in Under the terms of the Licensing Act , on the application of local electors, a referendum could be held in each local government area at seven-year intervals on whether that district should be "wet" or "dry" on the Sabbath.

Most districts in the border area and the southern industrial area went "wet" in or , with most others following suit in The whole of Wales was "wet" from , and the facility for further referendums was removed by the Sunday Licensing Act A parish poll is a referendum held in a civic parish under the Local Government Act The poll was initiated by a supporter of the United Kingdom Independence Party , a political party noted for its Euroscepticism.

The poll was criticised by the chairman of the parish council as "little more than a publicity stunt. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Joint Ministerial Committee Legislative consent motions Scotland. United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum, United Kingdom Alternative Vote referendum, United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Edinburgh road tolls referendum, and Greater Manchester transport referendum, Strathclyde water referendum, England and Wales mayoral referendums.

Archived from the original on 16 November Archived from the original on 31 July Retrieved 19 February EU referendum bill shows only Tories listen".

Retrieved 14 July Archived from the original PDF on 15 August Retrieved 19 May House of Commons Library. Retrieved 3 November Retrieved 18 October House of Commons Library Retrieved 24 October Retrieved 20 December Retrieved 28 October Guardian News and Media.

Voters Approve Change in Governance". Bridport and Lyme Regis News.

Mai englisch, Im Originaltext: Zuvor wolle er mit seinen europäischen Partnern verhandeln, um eine Reform der EU entsprechend den britischen Vorstellungen zu erreichen. Mehr als 67 Prozent der Briten sprachen sich damals jedoch für einen Verbleib in der Gemeinschaft aus. Es ändert sich nur nach dem Brexit. Februar , abgerufen am 7. Dezember , abgerufen am 5. Selbstverständlich ist dann das Volk erneut zu fragen. Austritts-Vertrag nicht annehmen hat negative Folgen für alle und ist daher eigentlich auch nicht annehmbar. Niemand hätte vorher sagen können, wie schädlich, kompliziert und verrückt ein EU-Austritt tatsächlich sein wird. Ebenso müssten sie einen substanziellen Beitrag zum EU-Haushalt leisten. Ich lasse das nächste rechtlich nicht bindende Referendum durchführen, um wieder kein Ergebnis zu haben, an das ich mich halten muss Ergebnis 2: Der erklärte Sinn des Gesetzes ist es, dass zu keinem Zeitpunkt Rechtsunsicherheit herrscht. Dezember - 7: Langfristig litt das Vertrauen der Wählerschaft in die wirtschaftspolitische Kompetenz der Konservativen Partei und der Glaube an ein europäisches Währungsprojekt war nachhaltig erschüttert. Die Änderungen am Vertragswerk wurden am 9.

England referendum - the expert

In der Referendumskampagne hatte Premierminister David Cameron die Grenzkontrollen mit Frankreich problematisiert, indem er das Fortbestehen des Le-Touquet-Abkommens von im Falle eines Brexits als gefährdet ansah. NEU als Themen abonnierbar: Statt bis Ende könnte sie ein Jahr länger dauern. Also noch ein letztes Referendum. Ungeachtet dessen ist die EU tatsächlich anders zu gestalten, denn es sollte möglich sein, wirtschaftlich daran teilzuhaben, ohne alle politischen Schritte der Vertiefung mitmachen zu müssen. Damit haben Sie sich von selbst geoutet aus welcher politischen Ecke Sie kommen! Jetzt kommt die Rechnung. Sie galt vor allem durch heftige Störfeuer aus den eigenen Reihen als geschwächt. Es bleiben nur noch wenige Monate bis zum Austrittstermin am UK argentinien island tipp wird es nicht schaffen den Import den man von der EU bekommt zu kompensieren. Dazu könnte es kommen, wenn Le mans 2019 mit einem Brexit-Abkommen im britischen Parlament scheitert. Eine Voraussetzung dafür ist, dass das britische Parlament zuvor der Rücknahme der Austrittserklärung zustimmt. Millions 'could miss 2. bundesliga basketball on vote'. Referendum nicht für sinnvoll, halte es aber für sehr gut möglich, dass es so kommen wird dann sieht die Sache ganz anders aus. Dschungelcamp gewinnarchiviert vom Original am 4. Genauso muss man auch sich hinstellen sollte es ein 2. Greens to Make Progressive Case for Membership. Die Immigration wurde zu einem Hauptthema in der politischen Auseinandersetzung vor dem EU-Mitgliedschaftsreferendum Nun kommt der D-Day im Gesundheitssystem. Diese Tendenz verstärkte sich durch die Existenz des Binnenmarkts.