Northern ireland germany

northern ireland germany

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This page was last edited on 7 January , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. People like Stewart are the unsung heroes who have been brave enough to challenge sectarianism and who have actively created a more fun, safe and family-orientated atmosphere at international games.

Fans like Stewart have made the atmosphere at Northern Ireland football games in recent years the envy of Fans across not only Europe but World football.

From a personal point of view I would like to thank them for their efforts. Saint Kitts and Nevis. Belfast , Northern Ireland. Panama City , Panama.

Estadio Nacional de Costa Rica Attendance: Sarajevo , Bosnia and Herzegovina. Events overtook the government.

Under the terms of the treaty, Northern Ireland would become part of the Free State unless the government opted out by presenting an address to the king, although in practice partition remained in place.

As expected, the Houses of the Parliament of Northern Ireland resolved on 7 December the day after the establishment of the Irish Free State to exercise its right to opt out of the Free State by making an address to the King.

Shortly afterwards, the Boundary Commission was established to decide on the territorial boundaries between the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland.

Owing to the outbreak of civil war in the Free State , the work of the commission was delayed until Leaders in Dublin expected a substantial reduction in the territory of Northern Ireland, with nationalist areas moving to the Free State.

The Ireland Act gave the first legal guarantee that the region would not cease to be part of the United Kingdom without the consent of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

The Troubles, which started in the late s, consisted of about thirty years of recurring acts of intense violence during which 3, people were killed [38] with over 50, casualties.

The franchise for local government elections included only rate-payers and their spouses, and so excluded over a quarter of the electorate.

While the majority of disenfranchised electors were Protestant, but Catholics were over-represented since they were poorer and had more adults still living in the family home.

The state security forces — the British Army and the police the Royal Ulster Constabulary — were also involved in the violence. Republicans regarded the state forces as combatants in the conflict, pointing to the collusion between the state forces and the loyalist paramilitaries as proof of this.

The "Ballast" investigation by the Police Ombudsman has confirmed that British forces, and in particular the RUC, did collude with loyalist paramilitaries, were involved in murder, and did obstruct the course of justice when such claims had been investigated, [44] although the extent to which such collusion occurred is still hotly disputed.

As a consequence of the worsening security situation, autonomous regional government for Northern Ireland was suspended in Alongside the violence, there was a political deadlock between the major political parties in Northern Ireland, including those who condemned violence, over the future status of Northern Ireland and the form of government there should be within Northern Ireland.

In , Northern Ireland held a referendum to determine if it should remain in the United Kingdom, or be part of a united Ireland.

The vote went heavily in favour The Troubles were brought to an uneasy end by a peace process which included the declaration of ceasefires by most paramilitary organisations and the complete decommissioning of their weapons, the reform of the police, and the corresponding withdrawal of army troops from the streets and from sensitive border areas such as South Armagh and Fermanagh , as agreed by the signatories to the Belfast Agreement commonly known as the " Good Friday Agreement ".

This reiterated the long-held British position, which had never before been fully acknowledged by successive Irish governments, that Northern Ireland will remain within the United Kingdom until a majority of voters in Northern Ireland decides otherwise.

The Constitution of Ireland was amended in to remove a claim of the "Irish nation" to sovereignty over the entire island in Article 2.

The new Articles 2 and 3 , added to the Constitution to replace the earlier articles, implicitly acknowledge that the status of Northern Ireland, and its relationships within the rest of the United Kingdom and with the Republic of Ireland, would only be changed with the agreement of a majority of voters in each jurisdiction.

This aspect was also central to the Belfast Agreement which was signed in and ratified by referendums held simultaneously in both Northern Ireland and the Republic.

At the same time, the British Government recognised for the first time, as part of the prospective, the so-called "Irish dimension": It established a devolved power-sharing government within Northern Ireland, which must consist of both unionist and nationalist parties.

On 28 July , the Provisional IRA declared an end to its campaign and has since decommissioned what is thought to be all of its arsenal.

This final act of decommissioning was performed in accordance with the Belfast Agreement of and under the watch of the Independent International Commission on Decommissioning and two external church witnesses.

Many unionists, however, remain sceptical. The International Commission later confirmed that the main loyalist paramilitary groups, the UDA, UVF and the Red Hand Commando, had decommissioned what is thought to be all of their arsenals, witnessed by a former archbishop and a former top civil servant.

Politicians elected to the Assembly at the Assembly election were called together on 15 May under the Northern Ireland Act [51] for the purpose of electing a First Minister and deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland and choosing the members of an Executive before 25 November as a preliminary step to the restoration of devolved government.

The main political divide in Northern Ireland is between unionists, who wish to see Northern Ireland continue as part of the United Kingdom, and nationalists, who wish to see Northern Ireland unified with the Republic of Ireland, independent from the United Kingdom.

These two opposing views are linked to deeper cultural divisions. Unionists are predominantly Ulster Protestant , descendants of mainly Scottish , English, and Huguenot settlers as well as Gaels who converted to one of the Protestant denominations.

Nationalists are overwhelmingly Catholic and descend from the population predating the settlement, with a minority from the Scottish Highlands as well as some converts from Protestantism.

Discrimination against nationalists under the Stormont government — gave rise to the civil rights movement in the s. While some unionists argue that discrimination was not just due to religious or political bigotry, but also the result of more complex socio-economic, socio-political and geographical factors, [55] its existence, and the manner in which nationalist anger at it was handled, were a major contributing factor to the Troubles.

The political unrest went through its most violent phase between and Most of the population of Northern Ireland are at least nominally Christian, mostly Roman Catholic and Protestant denominations.

For the most part, Protestants feel a strong connection with Great Britain and wish for Northern Ireland to remain part of the United Kingdom.

Many Catholics however, generally aspire to a United Ireland or are less certain about how to solve the constitutional question.

Protestants have a slight majority in Northern Ireland, according to the latest Northern Ireland Census. The make-up of the Northern Ireland Assembly reflects the appeals of the various parties within the population.

Of the Members of the Legislative Assembly MLAs , 56 are unionists and 40 are nationalists the remaining 12 are classified as "other".

Since , Northern Ireland has had devolved government within the United Kingdom, presided over by the Northern Ireland Assembly and a cross-community government the Northern Ireland Executive.

Reserved matters comprise listed policy areas such as civil aviation , units of measurement , and human genetics that Parliament may devolve to the Assembly some time in the future.

Excepted matters such as international relations , taxation and elections are never expected to be considered for devolution. On all other governmental matters, the Executive together with the member Assembly may legislate for and govern Northern Ireland.

Elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly are by single transferable vote with five Members of the Legislative Assembly MLAs elected from each of 18 parliamentary constituencies.

In addition, eighteen representatives Members of Parliament, MPs are elected to the lower house of the UK parliament from the same constituencies using the first-past-the-post system.

However, not all of those elected take their seats. In addition, the upper house of the UK parliament, the House of Lords , currently has some 25 appointed members from Northern Ireland.

Northern Ireland itself forms a single constituency for elections to the European Parliament. Northern Ireland is a distinct legal jurisdiction , separate from the two other jurisdictions in the United Kingdom England and Wales , and Scotland.

Northern Ireland law developed from Irish law that existed before the partition of Ireland in Northern Ireland is a common law jurisdiction and its common law is similar to that in England and Wales.

However, there are important differences in law and procedure between Northern Ireland and England and Wales.

There is no generally accepted term to describe what Northern Ireland is: There is also no uniform or guiding way to refer to Northern Ireland amongst the agencies of the UK government.

Unlike England, Scotland and Wales, Northern Ireland has no history of being an independent country or of being a nation in its own right.

Many commentators prefer to use the term "province", although that is also not without problems. It can arouse irritation, particularly among nationalists, for whom the title province is properly reserved for the traditional province of Ulster, of which Northern Ireland comprises six out of nine counties.

Some authors have described the meaning of this term as being equivocal: Some authors choose this word but note that it is "unsatisfactory".

Many people inside and outside Northern Ireland use other names for Northern Ireland, depending on their point of view.

Disagreement on names, and the reading of political symbolism into the use or non-use of a word, also attaches itself to some urban centres. Choice of language and nomenclature in Northern Ireland often reveals the cultural, ethnic and religious identity of the speaker.

Those who do not belong to any group but lean towards one side often tend to use the language of that group. Although some news bulletins since the s have opted to avoid all contentious terms and use the official name, Northern Ireland, the term "the North" remains commonly used by broadcast media in the Republic.

Northern Ireland was covered by an ice sheet for most of the last ice age and on numerous previous occasions, the legacy of which can be seen in the extensive coverage of drumlins in Counties Fermanagh, Armagh, Antrim and particularly Down.

The largest island of Northern Ireland is Rathlin , off the north Antrim coast. There are substantial uplands in the Sperrin Mountains an extension of the Caledonian mountain belt with extensive gold deposits, granite Mourne Mountains and basalt Antrim Plateau , as well as smaller ranges in South Armagh and along the Fermanagh—Tyrone border.

The Lower and Upper River Bann , River Foyle and River Blackwater form extensive fertile lowlands, with excellent arable land also found in North and East Down, although much of the hill country is marginal and suitable largely for animal husbandry.

The valley of the River Lagan is dominated by Belfast, whose metropolitan area includes over a third of the population of Northern Ireland, with heavy urbanisation and industrialisation along the Lagan Valley and both shores of Belfast Lough.

The whole of Northern Ireland has a temperate maritime climate , rather wetter in the west than the east, although cloud cover is persistent across the region.

The weather is unpredictable at all times of the year, and although the seasons are distinct, they are considerably less pronounced than in interior Europe or the eastern seaboard of North America.

Average daytime maximums in Belfast are 6. The highest maximum temperature recorded was Northern Ireland is the least forested part of the United Kingdom and Ireland, and one of the least forested parts of Europe.

Northern Ireland consists of six historic counties: These counties are no longer used for local government purposes; instead, there are eleven districts of Northern Ireland which have different geographical extents.

These were created in , replacing the twenty-six districts which previously existed. Although counties are no longer used for local governmental purposes, they remain a popular means of describing where places are.

The Gaelic Athletic Association still uses the counties as its primary means of organisation and fields representative teams of each GAA county.

The original system of car registration numbers largely based on counties still remains in use. In , the telephone numbering system was restructured into an 8 digit scheme with except for Belfast the first digit approximately reflecting the county.

With their decline in official use, there is often confusion surrounding towns and cities which lie near county boundaries, such as Belfast and Lisburn , which are split between counties Down and Antrim the majorities of both cities, however, are in Antrim.

Northern Ireland has traditionally had an industrial economy, most notably in shipbuilding, rope manufacture and textiles, but most heavy industry has since been replaced by services, primarily the public sector.

Tourism has been a major growth area since the end of the Troubles. Key tourism attractions include the historic cities of Derry, Belfast and Armagh and the many castles in Northern Ireland.

More recently, the economy has benefited from major investment by many large multi-national corporations into high tech industry. The local economy has seen contraction during the Great Recession.

In response, the Northern Ireland Assembly has sent trade missions abroad. Northern Ireland has underdeveloped transport infrastructure , with most infrastructure concentrated around Greater Belfast, Greater Derry and Craigavon.

Passenger railways are operated by Northern Ireland Railways. The only preserved line of this gauge is the Downpatrick and County Down Railway.

The cross-border road connecting the ports of Larne in Northern Ireland and Rosslare Harbour in the Republic of Ireland is being upgraded as part of an EU-funded scheme.

The population of Northern Ireland has risen yearly since The population in was 1. The population of Northern Ireland is almost entirely white The largest non-white ethnic groups were Chinese 6, and Indian 6, Black people of various origins made up 0.

At the census, In terms of community background i. In the census in Northern Ireland respondents gave their national identity as follows.

Several studies and surveys carried out between and have indicated that, in general, most Protestants in Northern Ireland see themselves primarily as British, whereas a majority of Roman Catholics regard themselves primarily as Irish.

Overall, the Catholic population is somewhat more ethnically diverse than the more homogeneous Protestant population.

Compared to a similar survey carried out in , this shows a fall in the percentage of Protestants identifying as British and Ulster and a rise in those identifying as Northern Irish.

These figures were largely unchanged from the results. They are also, with similar exceptions, entitled to be citizens of Ireland.

This entitlement was reaffirmed in the Good Friday Agreement between the British and Irish governments, which provides that:.

As a result of the Agreement, the Constitution of the Republic of Ireland was amended. The current wording provides that people born in Northern Ireland are entitled to be Irish citizens on the same basis as people from any other part of the island.

Neither government, however, extends its citizenship to all persons born in Northern Ireland. Both governments exclude some people born in Northern Ireland, in particular persons born without one parent who is a British or Irish citizen.

The Irish restriction was given effect by the twenty-seventh amendment to the Irish Constitution in The position in UK nationality law is that most of those born in Northern Ireland are UK nationals, whether or not they so choose.

In the census in Northern Ireland respondents stated that they held the following passports. English is spoken as a first language by almost all of the Northern Ireland population.

It is the de facto official language and the Administration of Justice Language Act Ireland prohibits the use of languages other than English in legal proceedings.

Foras na Gaeilge , which promotes the Irish language, and the Ulster Scots Agency , which promotes the Ulster Scots dialect and culture.

He completed 67 of his 68 passes with a staggering 46 of them coming in the final third. A one-in-five conversion rate may be enough against a Northern Irish side they completely dominated but you wonder how they will fare against the bigger sides in the knockout rounds, when chances will be fewer and further between.

Graham Little, Northern Ireland UEFAcomGrahamL Having watched Slovakia secure a miraculous point against England the night before, Northern Ireland felt they had a chance of surviving the predicted German onslaught and progressing to the next round with a similar show.

And when the German superstars continually spurned chance after chance, their fans again dared to dream. Northern Ireland were simply outclassed.

He will be pleased by the amount of chances created, something where the World Cup holders had been lacking in this tournament. At the same time, he will be a bit worried by how easily those chances were squandered.

Northern ireland germany - phrase, simply

In September , however, they issued an announcement in favour of the redevelopment of Windsor Park. Then fast forward to the European Championship qualifiers when a goal from Ian Stewart on a famous November night in Belfast saw Billy Bingham's side defeat the then newly crowned World Champions. However, Bayern Munich's Thomas Müller has already bagged four goals this campaign and will clearly be a particular concern given that sort of form. Has Kyle Lafferty worked his way back into the starting XI following the http: Venue revealed for Germany v Northern Ireland.

In the context of open institutional discrimination, the 18th century saw secret, militant societies develop in communities in the region and act on sectarian tensions in violent attacks.

A rebellion in led by the cross-community Belfast-based Society of the United Irishmen and inspired by the French Revolution sought to break the constitutional ties between Ireland and Britain and unite Irish people of all religions.

Following this, in an attempt to quell sectarianism and force the removal of discriminatory laws and to prevent the spread of French-style republicanism to Ireland , the government of the Kingdom of Great Britain pushed for the two kingdoms to be merged.

The new state, formed in , the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland , was governed from a single government and parliament based in London.

Some , people from Ulster emigrated to the British North American colonies between and During the 19th century, legal reforms started in the late 18th century continued to remove statutory discrimination against Catholics, and progressive programmes enabled tenant farmers to buy land from landlords.

By the close of the century, autonomy for Ireland within the United Kingdom, known as Home Rule , was regarded as highly likely. In , after decades of obstruction from the House of Lords , Home Rule became a near-certainty.

A clash between the House of Commons and House of Lords over a controversial budget produced the Parliament Act , which enabled the veto of the Lords to be overturned.

In response, opponents to Home Rule, from Conservative and Unionist Party leaders such as Bonar Law and Dublin-based barrister Sir Edward Carson to militant working class unionists in Ireland, threatened the use of violence.

In , they smuggled thousands of rifles and rounds of ammunition from Imperial Germany for use by the Ulster Volunteers UVF , a paramilitary organisation opposed to the implementation of Home Rule.

Most of the remaining 26 counties which later became the Republic of Ireland were overwhelmingly majority-nationalist. During the Home Rule Crisis the possibility was discussed of a "temporary" partition of these six counties from the rest of Ireland.

However, its implementation was suspended before it came into effect because of the outbreak of the First World War , and the Amending Bill to partition Ireland was abandoned.

The war was expected to last only a few weeks but in fact, lasted four years. By the end of the war during which the Easter Rising had taken place , the Act was seen as unimplementable.

Public opinion among nationalists had shifted during the war from a demand for home rule to one for full independence. Straddling these two areas would be a shared Lord Lieutenant of Ireland who would appoint both governments and a Council of Ireland , which Lloyd George believed would evolve into an all-Ireland parliament.

Events overtook the government. Under the terms of the treaty, Northern Ireland would become part of the Free State unless the government opted out by presenting an address to the king, although in practice partition remained in place.

As expected, the Houses of the Parliament of Northern Ireland resolved on 7 December the day after the establishment of the Irish Free State to exercise its right to opt out of the Free State by making an address to the King.

Shortly afterwards, the Boundary Commission was established to decide on the territorial boundaries between the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland.

Owing to the outbreak of civil war in the Free State , the work of the commission was delayed until Leaders in Dublin expected a substantial reduction in the territory of Northern Ireland, with nationalist areas moving to the Free State.

The Ireland Act gave the first legal guarantee that the region would not cease to be part of the United Kingdom without the consent of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

The Troubles, which started in the late s, consisted of about thirty years of recurring acts of intense violence during which 3, people were killed [38] with over 50, casualties.

The franchise for local government elections included only rate-payers and their spouses, and so excluded over a quarter of the electorate.

While the majority of disenfranchised electors were Protestant, but Catholics were over-represented since they were poorer and had more adults still living in the family home.

The state security forces — the British Army and the police the Royal Ulster Constabulary — were also involved in the violence. Republicans regarded the state forces as combatants in the conflict, pointing to the collusion between the state forces and the loyalist paramilitaries as proof of this.

The "Ballast" investigation by the Police Ombudsman has confirmed that British forces, and in particular the RUC, did collude with loyalist paramilitaries, were involved in murder, and did obstruct the course of justice when such claims had been investigated, [44] although the extent to which such collusion occurred is still hotly disputed.

As a consequence of the worsening security situation, autonomous regional government for Northern Ireland was suspended in Alongside the violence, there was a political deadlock between the major political parties in Northern Ireland, including those who condemned violence, over the future status of Northern Ireland and the form of government there should be within Northern Ireland.

In , Northern Ireland held a referendum to determine if it should remain in the United Kingdom, or be part of a united Ireland. The vote went heavily in favour The Troubles were brought to an uneasy end by a peace process which included the declaration of ceasefires by most paramilitary organisations and the complete decommissioning of their weapons, the reform of the police, and the corresponding withdrawal of army troops from the streets and from sensitive border areas such as South Armagh and Fermanagh , as agreed by the signatories to the Belfast Agreement commonly known as the " Good Friday Agreement ".

This reiterated the long-held British position, which had never before been fully acknowledged by successive Irish governments, that Northern Ireland will remain within the United Kingdom until a majority of voters in Northern Ireland decides otherwise.

The Constitution of Ireland was amended in to remove a claim of the "Irish nation" to sovereignty over the entire island in Article 2. The new Articles 2 and 3 , added to the Constitution to replace the earlier articles, implicitly acknowledge that the status of Northern Ireland, and its relationships within the rest of the United Kingdom and with the Republic of Ireland, would only be changed with the agreement of a majority of voters in each jurisdiction.

This aspect was also central to the Belfast Agreement which was signed in and ratified by referendums held simultaneously in both Northern Ireland and the Republic.

At the same time, the British Government recognised for the first time, as part of the prospective, the so-called "Irish dimension": It established a devolved power-sharing government within Northern Ireland, which must consist of both unionist and nationalist parties.

On 28 July , the Provisional IRA declared an end to its campaign and has since decommissioned what is thought to be all of its arsenal.

This final act of decommissioning was performed in accordance with the Belfast Agreement of and under the watch of the Independent International Commission on Decommissioning and two external church witnesses.

Many unionists, however, remain sceptical. The International Commission later confirmed that the main loyalist paramilitary groups, the UDA, UVF and the Red Hand Commando, had decommissioned what is thought to be all of their arsenals, witnessed by a former archbishop and a former top civil servant.

Politicians elected to the Assembly at the Assembly election were called together on 15 May under the Northern Ireland Act [51] for the purpose of electing a First Minister and deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland and choosing the members of an Executive before 25 November as a preliminary step to the restoration of devolved government.

The main political divide in Northern Ireland is between unionists, who wish to see Northern Ireland continue as part of the United Kingdom, and nationalists, who wish to see Northern Ireland unified with the Republic of Ireland, independent from the United Kingdom.

These two opposing views are linked to deeper cultural divisions. Unionists are predominantly Ulster Protestant , descendants of mainly Scottish , English, and Huguenot settlers as well as Gaels who converted to one of the Protestant denominations.

Nationalists are overwhelmingly Catholic and descend from the population predating the settlement, with a minority from the Scottish Highlands as well as some converts from Protestantism.

Discrimination against nationalists under the Stormont government — gave rise to the civil rights movement in the s.

While some unionists argue that discrimination was not just due to religious or political bigotry, but also the result of more complex socio-economic, socio-political and geographical factors, [55] its existence, and the manner in which nationalist anger at it was handled, were a major contributing factor to the Troubles.

The political unrest went through its most violent phase between and Most of the population of Northern Ireland are at least nominally Christian, mostly Roman Catholic and Protestant denominations.

For the most part, Protestants feel a strong connection with Great Britain and wish for Northern Ireland to remain part of the United Kingdom.

Many Catholics however, generally aspire to a United Ireland or are less certain about how to solve the constitutional question.

Protestants have a slight majority in Northern Ireland, according to the latest Northern Ireland Census. The make-up of the Northern Ireland Assembly reflects the appeals of the various parties within the population.

Of the Members of the Legislative Assembly MLAs , 56 are unionists and 40 are nationalists the remaining 12 are classified as "other".

Since , Northern Ireland has had devolved government within the United Kingdom, presided over by the Northern Ireland Assembly and a cross-community government the Northern Ireland Executive.

Reserved matters comprise listed policy areas such as civil aviation , units of measurement , and human genetics that Parliament may devolve to the Assembly some time in the future.

Excepted matters such as international relations , taxation and elections are never expected to be considered for devolution.

On all other governmental matters, the Executive together with the member Assembly may legislate for and govern Northern Ireland.

Elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly are by single transferable vote with five Members of the Legislative Assembly MLAs elected from each of 18 parliamentary constituencies.

In addition, eighteen representatives Members of Parliament, MPs are elected to the lower house of the UK parliament from the same constituencies using the first-past-the-post system.

However, not all of those elected take their seats. In addition, the upper house of the UK parliament, the House of Lords , currently has some 25 appointed members from Northern Ireland.

Northern Ireland itself forms a single constituency for elections to the European Parliament. Northern Ireland is a distinct legal jurisdiction , separate from the two other jurisdictions in the United Kingdom England and Wales , and Scotland.

Northern Ireland law developed from Irish law that existed before the partition of Ireland in Northern Ireland is a common law jurisdiction and its common law is similar to that in England and Wales.

However, there are important differences in law and procedure between Northern Ireland and England and Wales. There is no generally accepted term to describe what Northern Ireland is: There is also no uniform or guiding way to refer to Northern Ireland amongst the agencies of the UK government.

Unlike England, Scotland and Wales, Northern Ireland has no history of being an independent country or of being a nation in its own right.

Many commentators prefer to use the term "province", although that is also not without problems. It can arouse irritation, particularly among nationalists, for whom the title province is properly reserved for the traditional province of Ulster, of which Northern Ireland comprises six out of nine counties.

Some authors have described the meaning of this term as being equivocal: Some authors choose this word but note that it is "unsatisfactory".

Many people inside and outside Northern Ireland use other names for Northern Ireland, depending on their point of view. Disagreement on names, and the reading of political symbolism into the use or non-use of a word, also attaches itself to some urban centres.

Choice of language and nomenclature in Northern Ireland often reveals the cultural, ethnic and religious identity of the speaker. Those who do not belong to any group but lean towards one side often tend to use the language of that group.

Although some news bulletins since the s have opted to avoid all contentious terms and use the official name, Northern Ireland, the term "the North" remains commonly used by broadcast media in the Republic.

Northern Ireland was covered by an ice sheet for most of the last ice age and on numerous previous occasions, the legacy of which can be seen in the extensive coverage of drumlins in Counties Fermanagh, Armagh, Antrim and particularly Down.

The largest island of Northern Ireland is Rathlin , off the north Antrim coast. There are substantial uplands in the Sperrin Mountains an extension of the Caledonian mountain belt with extensive gold deposits, granite Mourne Mountains and basalt Antrim Plateau , as well as smaller ranges in South Armagh and along the Fermanagh—Tyrone border.

The Lower and Upper River Bann , River Foyle and River Blackwater form extensive fertile lowlands, with excellent arable land also found in North and East Down, although much of the hill country is marginal and suitable largely for animal husbandry.

The valley of the River Lagan is dominated by Belfast, whose metropolitan area includes over a third of the population of Northern Ireland, with heavy urbanisation and industrialisation along the Lagan Valley and both shores of Belfast Lough.

The whole of Northern Ireland has a temperate maritime climate , rather wetter in the west than the east, although cloud cover is persistent across the region.

The weather is unpredictable at all times of the year, and although the seasons are distinct, they are considerably less pronounced than in interior Europe or the eastern seaboard of North America.

Average daytime maximums in Belfast are 6. The highest maximum temperature recorded was Northern Ireland is the least forested part of the United Kingdom and Ireland, and one of the least forested parts of Europe.

Northern Ireland consists of six historic counties: These counties are no longer used for local government purposes; instead, there are eleven districts of Northern Ireland which have different geographical extents.

These were created in , replacing the twenty-six districts which previously existed. Although counties are no longer used for local governmental purposes, they remain a popular means of describing where places are.

The Gaelic Athletic Association still uses the counties as its primary means of organisation and fields representative teams of each GAA county.

The original system of car registration numbers largely based on counties still remains in use. In , the telephone numbering system was restructured into an 8 digit scheme with except for Belfast the first digit approximately reflecting the county.

With their decline in official use, there is often confusion surrounding towns and cities which lie near county boundaries, such as Belfast and Lisburn , which are split between counties Down and Antrim the majorities of both cities, however, are in Antrim.

Northern Ireland has traditionally had an industrial economy, most notably in shipbuilding, rope manufacture and textiles, but most heavy industry has since been replaced by services, primarily the public sector.

Tourism has been a major growth area since the end of the Troubles. Key tourism attractions include the historic cities of Derry, Belfast and Armagh and the many castles in Northern Ireland.

More recently, the economy has benefited from major investment by many large multi-national corporations into high tech industry. The local economy has seen contraction during the Great Recession.

In response, the Northern Ireland Assembly has sent trade missions abroad. Northern Ireland has underdeveloped transport infrastructure , with most infrastructure concentrated around Greater Belfast, Greater Derry and Craigavon.

Passenger railways are operated by Northern Ireland Railways. The only preserved line of this gauge is the Downpatrick and County Down Railway.

The cross-border road connecting the ports of Larne in Northern Ireland and Rosslare Harbour in the Republic of Ireland is being upgraded as part of an EU-funded scheme.

The population of Northern Ireland has risen yearly since The population in was 1. The population of Northern Ireland is almost entirely white The largest non-white ethnic groups were Chinese 6, and Indian 6, Black people of various origins made up 0.

At the census, He completed 67 of his 68 passes with a staggering 46 of them coming in the final third. A one-in-five conversion rate may be enough against a Northern Irish side they completely dominated but you wonder how they will fare against the bigger sides in the knockout rounds, when chances will be fewer and further between.

Graham Little, Northern Ireland UEFAcomGrahamL Having watched Slovakia secure a miraculous point against England the night before, Northern Ireland felt they had a chance of surviving the predicted German onslaught and progressing to the next round with a similar show.

And when the German superstars continually spurned chance after chance, their fans again dared to dream. Northern Ireland were simply outclassed. He will be pleased by the amount of chances created, something where the World Cup holders had been lacking in this tournament.

At the same time, he will be a bit worried by how easily those chances were squandered. David Healy scored the winner in the 73rd minute.

Initially, Worthington took over until the end of the Euro qualifiers, but was later given a contract until the end of the Euro qualifiers.

That was enough to qualify for a Round of 16 spot where they lost to Wales due to an unfortunate own goal by Gareth McAuley.

There was a proposal to build a multisports stadium for Northern Ireland at the disused Maze prison outside Lisburn for the use of Rugby , Gaelic games and football.

The issue assumed ever greater urgency by , following a series of inspections which questioned the suitability of Windsor Park to host international football.

Given the time that is needed to build a new stadium, in the absence of significant work improving Windsor Park, Northern Ireland may be forced to play their home games at a venue outside Northern Ireland for a period.

In March , proposals were announced for the construction of a new 25, seat stadium in the Sydenham area of East Belfast as an alternative to the Maze proposal.

This would form part of a major development, with links to both George Best Belfast City Airport and the Bangor railway line.

The stadium itself would be used for both football and rugby union , with Glentoran and Ulster Rugby intended as tenants. Ulster GAA , however, who were a partner in the Maze proposal, stated that in the event of a new stadium being built in East Belfast, which is a major [unionist] area, their preference would then be to remain at Casement Park in [nationalist] [west] Belfast.

The IFA were initially non-committal about any of the proposals for improving their facilities, be it rebuilding Windsor Park, or supporting either the Maze or Sydenham proposals.

In September , however, they issued an announcement in favour of the redevelopment of Windsor Park. The plan was to redevelop Windsor Park into an 18, all-seater stadium with a series of phased works originally intended to begin in the summer of The redevelopment would include the demolition of the existing East and South Stand structures, to be replaced by new purpose built stands that would partially enclose the stadium; complete renovation of the existing North and West Stands; and construction of both new conferencing facilities and a new headquarters facility for the IFA.

In February , planning permission for the redevelopment was granted. It was initially planned for the work to begin in September Crusaders believed this to be against European Union competition law as well as a form of state aid towards Linfield.

It was ruled that it was a possibility for the redevelopment to be classed as state aid towards Linfield. The aspect of the challenge concerning competition law, however, was dismissed.

In July , Crusaders agreed to a possible settlement brought forward by the judicial review. The details of the settlement were not made public, but Crusaders said that it had the "potential to benefit the entirety of the football family".

The redevelopment finally got under way on 6 May after the —14 domestic season had finished, eight months later than originally planned. The work is due to be completed in Steps taken to eradicate the sectarian element within the support have been successful.

The IFA have made huge strides. At a friendly match in Dublin in against Scotland, the IFA carried out an inquiry following an incident in which Northern Ireland fans sang sectarian songs.

The Green and White Army is the name given to the fans that follow the Northern Ireland national football team.

Since the defeat of England in , there has been an increased demand for tickets exceeding supply. The European Footballer of the Year , Best won 37 caps and scored 9 goals for his country.

Results updated as of 12 November after the match against Switzerland. The following players were selected for the friendly against Republic of Ireland and the Nations League game against Austria in November Caps and goals updated as of 18 November , after the match against Austria.

The following players have been called up to the Northern Ireland squad during the last 12 months. Billy Bingham manager —71, —93 ASS: Pat Jennings —86 RB: Jimmy Nicholl —86 CB: Aaron Hughes — CB: Gareth McAuley — LB: Mal Donaghy —94 RM: Keith Gillespie — CM: Danny Blanchflower —63 CM: Steven Davis — LM: George Best —77 CF: David Healy —13 CF: Caps updated as of 15 October after the match against Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Goals updated as of 15 October after the match against Poland. As of 18 November after the match against Austria.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Republic of Ireland national football team. Ireland national football team —

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